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  1. Powdered Peanut Butter A Survey Powdered Peanut Butter Nutritional Information Bell Plantation Inc. http://www.bellplantation.com/index.php?op...id=15&Itemi d=35 PB2 is made with premium quality peanuts that are slow-roasted to our specifications and pressed to remove the fat. All natural with no artificial sweeteners or preservatives. Same consistency as full-fat peanut butter with all of the roasted peanut flavor, but with more than 85% less fat calories. Click here for a printable flyer detailing PB2's nutritional information. Directions: Just mix 2 tablespoons of PB2 with 1 tablespoon of water and stir until smooth. Can be mixed directly with jelly or jam for a PB2 and Jelly sandwich. Use your imagination with other liquids to develop your own unique flavors. For more ideas on exciting flavor combinations, click here: Recipe Ideas Using PB2 Nutrition Facts: (6.5 oz./184g) Click on Picture to Order Ingredients: Roasted Peanuts, salt, and sugar Serving Size: 2 tablespoons (12 grams) Servings Per Container: 16 Amount Per 2 Tablespoon Serving (*when mixed with water): Calories 50 Calories from Fat 15 % Daily Value* Total Fat 2 g 3% Saturated Fat 0 g Trans Fat 0 g Polyunsaturated Fat 0 g Monounsaturated Fat 1 g Cholesterol < 0.1 mg 0%Sodium 80 mg 3%Total Carbohydrate 3 g 1% Dietary Fiber 0 g Sugars 2 g Protein 6 g Vitamin A (IU) 0% Vitamin C (mg) < 0.1% Calcium (mg) 1% Iron (mg) 1% * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet. Provident Pantry Peanut Butter Powder This peanut butter product is safe and has not been recalled. We eat dehydrated foods every day. Everything from macaroni and cheese to instant cake mixes and soup mixes are dehydrated. Since your family is already accustomed to the convenience of these foods, you'll love adding these #10 cans into your food storage program. These foods offer a great way to provide meals in an emergency and they're generally inexpensive. Most rehydrated fruits, vegetables, and textured vegetables proteins will rehydrate in about 20 minutes in warm or hot water. For this reason, we recommend you maintain adequate water storage with your food storage program. Each #10 Can makes approximately 96 two-tbsp servings. Suppliers Bell Plantation Inc. http://www.bellplantation.com/ Emergency Essentials http://beprepared.com/product.asp?pn=FS%20...hcd2=1248227883 USA Emergency Supply https://www.usaemergencysupply.com/food_sto...tter_powder.htm FitNutz http://fitnutzbutter.com/ http://fitnutzbutter.com/products.html Retailers Bell Plantation retailer locations http://www.bellplantation.com/StoreLocator/index.php?tab=US Emergency Essentials http://beprepared.com/product.asp?pn=FS%20...hcd2=1248227883 Myspicer.com http://www.myspicer.com/catalog/index.php?cPath=12_7216280 Reviews of : Bell Plantation http://www.sensational.com/diet/PB2Powdere...r.html?mcp=3599 http://www.thenibble.com/reviews/diet/jams...r.asp#nutrition http://ridiculousfoodsociety.blogspot.com/...s-powdered.html http://www.consumersearch.com/peanut-butte...d-peanut-butter
  2. Here are some other potatoe growing options. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/6...all.html?cat=32 http://www.ehow.com/how_4934061_grow-potatoes-old-tires.html http://www.hillgardens.com/potatoes.htm
  3. How to grow 100 pounds of potatoes in 4 square feet. http://tipnut.com/grow-potatoes/
  4. Shelf life of Prescription Drugs - A Primer For the survivalist planner this is a critical subject. Yet little discussion or research has been submitted on the WWW survival websites. Below are some concise and factual sources with information on this critical survival planning subject. http://thesurvivalistblog.blogspot.com/sea...scription+drugs http://home.att.net/~vetcenter/expdrugs.htm http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/05150/512789-114.stm http://www.endtimesreport.com/Prescription_longevity.html http://www.associatedcontent.com/art...fit.html?cat=5 http://www.entrewave.com/view/y2kchaos/s35p650.htm http://www.survivalblog.com/2009/02/letter...e_resource.html http://www.survivalblog.com/2006/06/letter...p_on_presc.html Additional sources welcomed.
  5. STORAGE LIFE OF DRY FOODS http://standeyo.com/News_Files/Food/Extend_Shelf_Life.html STORAGE LIFE OF DRY FOODS In Consultation with Stephen Portela NOTE: THESE PAGES HAVE BEEN DRAMATICALLY UPDATED IN DARE TO PREPARE — 2ND EDITION Determining the storage life of foods is at best an inexact science as there are so many variables. These range from the condition your food was in when you first purchased it and many other factors. This page was written with input by Mr. Stephen Portela who has over 30 years of professional food storage experience. This information should be used as a general guide only, and should not be followed "as the gospel truth" because your results may be different. FOUR FACTORS THAT AFFECT FOOD STORAGE Factor #1: The Temperature Temperature has more to do with how long well dried foods store than anything else. The USDA states, "Each 5.6oC. (10.08oF) drop in temperature doubles the storage life of the seeds". Obviously, there is a limit as to how far this statement can be taken. However I expect it basically holds true from room temperature down to freezing. No doubt, the inverse could also be considered true. "Each 5.6oC. (10.08oF) rise in temperature halves the storage life of seeds." This theory holds true for non-garden seeds as well. Storage Life Depending on CONSTANT Temperature Note: this chart is not for a specific food but shows the relationship between temperature and storage life. Let's look at a couple of real life examples of good and poor food storage practices: About a year ago we got an unopened paper bag of white flour which had been stored at 70oF, in a dry climate. It had been sitting for 3 years in a closet. It made fine looking bread but had such an 'old' and bad flavor that it was difficult to eat. For another example, a couple of years ago in the Puget Sound area we were given a 4 gallon can of wheat that had been stored up high in a garage for about 30 years. This part of the country is not as hot as some places, yet in the summers the average garage still gets up into the 90's. Even though wheat will store for 30+ years under good conditions, the bread from this particular wheat was very bad tasting and after a few batches we ended up throwing the wheat away (something I always dislike doing). oF oC Storage Life in Years 37.6 3.1 40 48.4 9.1 30 59.2 15.1 20 70.0 21.1 10 80.8 27.1 5 91.6 33.1 2.5 102.4 39.1 1.25 Counter these stories with several examples told by Mr. Stephen Portela, Walton Feed's manager: He stores his long term food storage in his basement where the temperature hovers around 60oF. The experts give brown rice a 6 month storage life because of all the oils in it that go rancid. Yet, Mr. Portela has been eating from a supply of brown rice that has been in his basement over 10 years. It is still wholesome! In another example, there is a family living near him who purchased a supply of food in #10 cans 30 years ago. Their basement hovers around 58oF. After 28 years, Mr. Portela took a sample of many of these items to the Benson Institute at BYU to have it tested. The results can be seen at the bottom of http://waltonfeed.com/portela.html Mr. Portela's welcome page. You will see everything tested had a 'good' to 'satisfactory' rating except for the eggs which had a 'minimum passing' rating. After 28 years I think it is most interesting that it passed at all. Mr. Portela tells me as 30 years have now passed, their storage is still in very good condition. The bottom line is even with the very best packaging methods, if you are planning on storing your food in a warm environment, it will only last a fraction of the time it would last if stored in a cool, dry place. It is important you also find a place where the temperature remains constant. Frequent temperature changes shorten storage life. If you don't have a cool place for your food storage, plan on rotating your storage quickly enough to prevent food loss. Factor #2: Product Moisture Content By looking at the USDA nutritional tables, dry beans, grains, and flours contain an average of 10% moisture. Although it is very difficult and unnecessary to remove all moisture from dry foods, it is imperative that any food be stored as dry as possible. Foods with excess moisture can spoil right in their containers. This is an important consideration when packing food with dry ice as moisture condenses and freezes on the outer surface of the dry ice. For long term storage, grains should have a moisture content of 10% or less. It is difficult to accurately measure this without special equipment. Factor #3: Atmosphere the product is stored in Foods packed in air don't store as well as in oxygen free gasses. This is because air contains oxygen which oxidizes many of the compounds in food. Food storage companies have a couple of different processes for removing the oxygen: Displacing the oxygen: This is done by purging out all the air in the product with an inert gas. Nitrogen is almost always used because it is the most inert gas known. People doing their own packing occasionally use dry ice which gives off carbon dioxide gas, and probably works just about as well. Absorb the oxygen: Oxygen absorber packets do just that. Air contains about 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, leaving about 1% for the other gasses. If the oxygen is absorbed, what remains is 99% pure nitrogen in a partial vacuum. If oxygen absorber packets are used, care must be taken to use a storage container that can stand some vacuum. As air is sucked into your container as the oxygen is absorbed, it reintroduces more oxygen that must be absorbed. Before long, the oxygen absorbers will have absorbed all the oxygen they can. Obviously, your product won't be oxygen free under these circumstances. Walton Feed gets around this problem with their plastic Super Pail buckets by purging the product first with nitrogen before tossing in the two oxygen absorber packets. This way the absorbers have little or no oxygen to absorb and don't create a vacuum within the pail. As cans work well under a partial vacuum, purging them with nitrogen isn't necessary before inserting the oxygen absorber packet and sealing the lid. Large seeds store better in nitrogen. On the other hand, small seeds, like many garden seeds store better in air. For this reason Walton cans their garden seed packs in air. Factor #4: The container the product is stored in To get the best storage life out of your product it must have a hermetic (air tight) seal. Containers that do this well are: #10 Cans Sealable food storage buckets Sealable food quality metal or plastic drums Whatever container you use, be sure it is food grade as your product can be tainted with whatever the container is made from. Plastic sacks are not good air tight containers, for even if they are sealed, the relatively thin plastic 'breathes,' allowing air to pass through. Paper sacks are of course even worse. There is some concern as to how good a seal is made by the lids on plastic buckets used by food storage companies. Manufacturer studies show an extremely small amount of air transfer. This amount is so small, however, that it can be considered a hermetic seal. It has also been found that the lids can be re-used several times without dramatically degrading the performance of the seal. People who purchase products from food storage providers are often concerned about receiving their buckets bulging or with one side collapsed in. Collapsed buckets occasionally occur when ordering from Walton's as the elevation of their packing facility is above 6,000 feet. As the buckets are shipped to a lower elevation, the increased ambient air pressure can sometimes push in one side. If a side is popped in, it is a great indication that the bucket is indeed sealed. And this also holds true for buckets that might be under a slight amount of pressure. If either condition concerns you, crack the lid to equalize the air pressure. You can do this without seriously degrading the storageability of the product within the bucket. Remember to re-seal the lid after doing this. Bulging cans: Some bulging cans have been returned to Waltons. In almost every case, these cans held mixes that contained baking powder or soda. These cans were sent off for bacteria analysis and came back negative. It is believed that occasionally the extremely small amount of moisture found in the product interacts over time with the baking powder or soda and creates a small amount of carbon dioxide gas. STORAGE LIFE NOTES ABOUT SPECIFIC FOODS The Soft Grains Barley Hulled or Pearled Oat Groats Rolled Oats Quinoa Rye Soft Grains have softer outer shells which don't protect the seed interior as well as hard shelled seeds and therefore won't store as long. Hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life of 8 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. They should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. The Hard Grains Buckwheat Corn, Dry Flax Kamut Millet Durum wheat Hard red wheat Hard white wheat Soft wheat Special bake wheat Spelt Triticale The Hard Grains all store well because of their hard outer shell which is nature's near perfect container. Remove that container and the contents rapidly deteriorate. Wheat, probably nature's longest storing seed, has been known to be edible after scores of years when stored in a cool dry place. As a general rule for hard grains, hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life of 10-12 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. They should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Beans Adzuki Beans Blackeye Beans Black Turtle Beans Garbanzo Beans Great Northern KidneyBeans Lentils Lima Beans Mung Beans Pink Beans Pinto Beans Small Red Beans Soy Beans As beans age they lose their oils, resist water absorption and won't swell. Worst case, they must be ground to be used. Storing beans in nitrogen helps prolong the loss of these oils as does cool temperatures. Hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life of 8-10 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. They should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Dehydrated Vegetables Broccoli Cabbage Carrots Celery Onions Peppers Potatoes Dehydrated vegetables store well if hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen. Plan on a storage life of 8-10 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. They should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Dehydrated Dairy Products Cheese Powder Cocoa Powder Powder Eggs Butter/margarine Powder Powder Milk Morning Moo Whey Powder Dehydrated dairy products generally store very well if stored dry in hermetically sealed containers. Plan on a storage life of 15 years if stored at a stable temperature of 70oF. They should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. One exception is Morning Moo. As a new whey based product, it hasn't been tested for long term storage. Plan on rotating this product after 5 years. Flours and Other Products Made From Cracked/Ground Seed All Purpose Flour Bakers Flour Unbleached Flour White Flour Whole Wheat Flour Cornmeal Mixes Refried Beans Cracked Wheat Germade Gluten Granola Wheat Flakes After seeds are broken open their outer shells can no longer protect the seed contents and seed nutrients start to degrade. Don't try to store unprotected flours longer than a year. Hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life of 5 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. They should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Pasta Pasta Macaroni Noodles Ribbons Spaghetti Pasta will store longer than flour if kept dry. Hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life of 8 - 10 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. Pasta should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Dehydrated Fruit Fruit doesn't keep as well as many dehydrated items. Hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life of 5 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. They should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Honey, Salt and Sugar Honey, salt and sugar should keep indefinitely if stored free of moisture. Watch out for additives in the honey. It is possible to buy honey with water and sugar added. This honey generally doesn't crystallize like pure 100% honey does when stored for a long time. If there are additives, there is no saying how long it will last. Peanut Butter Powder Peanut butter powder will not store as long as wheat flour. Hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life of 4-5 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. It should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Brown and White Rices Brown and white rices store very differently. Brown rice is only expected to store for 6 months under average conditions. This is because of the essential fatty acids in brown rice. These oils quickly go rancid as they oxidize. It will store much longer if refrigerated. White rice has the outer shell removed along with those fats. Because of this, white rice isn't nearly as good for you, but will store longer. Hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life for white rice of 8-10 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. It should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Seeds or Sprouting Seeds All viable seeds are hibernating tiny living plants that only need moisture and warmth to sprout. And much like a chick in an egg, all the nutrients this little life needs to spring into existence is contained within it's shell. Like boiling an egg, heating a seed will kill that little life within it. However, unlike an egg, a seed can withstand cold temperatures. As seeds usually remain edible after the life within it dies, we must use different criteria when determining sproutable seed storage life. And again the big deciding factor is temperature. The big seed companies freeze their seed between seasons to promote long life. Of course, you can also do the same thing. Plan on a storage life of 4 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. They should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Rita Bingham's Sprouting Book suggests that "Vacuum sealed or nitrogen treated seeds store longest, with a shelf life of up to 15 years." This is presupposing they are kept very cool or frozen. Alfalfa is a unique seed as it actually germinates better if the seed is 2 or 3 years old. Most any sample of alfalfa contains 'hard' seed and 'soft' seed. Soft seed germinates within two days while hard seed germinates in about a week. The problem is, by the time the soft seed sprouts are ready to harvest, the hard seed may not have germinated yet. As storage time draws on, the hard seed turns into soft seed. Older seed germinates closer together. Stored in good conditions, alfalfa seed should have a good percentage of germination up until it is 8 years old. Total Vegetable Protein, made from soy beans, has an unusually long storage life. Hermetically sealed in the absence of oxygen, plan on a storage life of 15-20 years at a stable temperature of 70oF. TVP should keep proportionately longer if stored at cooler temperatures. Yeast, a living organism, has a relatively short storage life. Keep yeast in the original metal foil storage containers. If the seal remains intact, yeast should last 2 years at 70oF. However it is strongly recommended that you refrigerate it, which should give you a storage life of 5 years. Frozen yeast should store for a long time. All contents © 1996-2000, Al Durtschi. All rights reserved. This information may be used by you freely for noncommercial use with my name and E-mail address attached. Revised: 3 Dec 1996 Al Durtschi, E-mail: mark@lis.ab.ca Home Page: http://waltonfeed.com/
  6. Storing Dry Milk - Shelf Life of Dry Milk https://www.usaemergencysupply.com/informat...ng_dry_milk.htm Dry milk products are probably the most sensitive to environmental conditions storage foods there are, particularly to temperature and moisture content. Their vitamins A and D are also photosensitive and will break down rapidly if exposed to light. The area where your dry milk is stored should be kept as cool as possible. If it is possible to do so, air-conditioning or even refrigeration can greatly extend the nutrient shelf life. If the storage container is transparent or translucent then it should be put into a second container opaque to light or stored in a dark room. Dry milk will absorb moisture and odors from the air so storage containers should be impervious to both air and moisture. The drier it can be kept, the better it will keep. The use of desiccants is an excellent idea. Oxygen also speeds decomposition. Powdered milk canned with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to replace air (which contains oxygen) will keep longer than powdered milk exposed to air. Vacuum canning or oxygen absorbers will also decrease the available oxygen. If the dry milk purchased was not packaged for long term storage then it should be repackaged right away. I purchase the instant variety at my local grocery and repack it when I get it home. I've seen a number of methods used for this and any of them should work. The method I now use is to pour the powder into clean, dry half-gallon canning jars. Once the jars are filled I add a small desiccant pack and seal. They are dated and stored in the ubiquitous cool, dark place. They must be guarded against breakage, but they offer the advantage of not holding odors, thus allowing for reuse after suitable cleaning. Since they are as transparent the contents must be protected against light. Vacuum sealing and then storing in a dark place may be the best method. Larger jars of 1 gallon size could be used and then re-vacuum sealed after each use. An O2 absorber would take care of any remaining oxygen and would, itself, last longer when used in conjunction with the vacuum sealer. Being glass, the jar can be reused as well as the lid and ring if they're properly cleaned. Clean, sound plastic one and two liter soda bottles can also be used, but probably should be used just once since the plastic is somewhat permeable and will hold odors. If you have access to a can sealer, #10 cans make wonderful storage containers for dry milk, particularly if used in conjunction with O2 absorbers. Another method I've seen used is to remove the paper envelopes of milk powder from the cardboard box they come from the grocery store in and to put them in dated plastic bags. These bags are not sealed. The unsealed bags are then placed in a larger, air tight, opaque container. I've heard of plastic buckets, fifty cal and 20 mm ammo cans being used for this purpose. A healthy quantity of desiccant was also placed in the container. This would be another area where O2 absorption packets should serve well. It's important to remember the containers should be clean and odor-free. Please see Section IV Specific Equipment Questions for information concerning the proper use of containers, desiccants, compressed gasses, dry ice and oxygen absorbers. B.2.1 SHELF LIFE OF DRY MILKS From: SacoFoods@aol.com (Amy Thompson) To: Dunross@dkeep.com (Alan Hagan) Subject: SACO Mix'nDrink Instant Pure Skim Milk May 9, 1996 Dear Mr. Hagan: Thank you for your e-mail today and for your interest in SACO Mix'nDrink Pure Skim Milk. Our Mix'n Drink will keep its nutrition value for up to about two years if kept cool and dry, and the only vitamins that actually decrease over time are the vitamins A and D. These are not shelf-stable vitamins and are sensitive to heat and light. A good rule of thumb to follow is that the vitamins A and D will dissipate at a rate of about 20% every year if stored properly. The less heat and moisture the milk is exposed to, the better the vitamins will keep. A freezer could extend the shelf life, as long as the powder does not get moisture in it. If you had to put a time limit on the Mix'nDrink, for rotation purposes, I would date it at two years after the date of purchase. After opening a package of dry milk, transfer the powder to a tightly covered glass or metal container (dry milk can pick up odors from plastic containers) and keep it in the refrigerator. Unsealed nonfat dry milk keeps for a few months; dry whole milk for a few weeks. From: SacoFoods@aol.com (Amy Thompson) To: Dunross@dkeep.com (Alan Hagan) Subject: SACO Mix'nDrink Instant Pure Skim Milk May 21, 1996 Dear Mr. Hagan: Since vitamins A and D are heat and light sensitive, I would say that your 1 1/2 year shelf life is very reasonable. If you are trying to determine when the nutritional value has been affected more than 40%, as you previously indicated, you should be pretty safe with that time element, as long as it is not exposed to extreme heat. [Eds note: We were discussing the higher average temperatures found in Florida and other hot climates and the effect that it would have on their dry milk's nutrient content]
  7. Baking Powder Solves a Shelf Life Dilemma http://www.survivalblog.com/2009/05/letter..._powder_so.html Regarding storing baking powder. Reader LCHS wrote: • Baking Powder does not have a long shelf life and will let you down if it’s old or improperly stored, but some things cannot be made without it. • Baking Soda has multiple uses; besides the original anti-acid and an ingredient in toothpaste, adding some to the filling of pies will cut the need for sugar as it cuts the acidity. It cannot, however, be substituted for Baking Powder. This suggests that availability could be a problem post TSHTF. A quick web-searching expedition confirms that Baking Powder does not, as LCHS states, store well. However, it can be made on demand with the following recipe found at the Frugal Living web site: • 1 teaspoon baking soda • 2 teaspoons cream of tartar • 1 teaspoon corn starch (optional) A little more research suggests that if baking soda and cream of tartar are put up individually that they will store "indefinitely". Shelf Life of Cream of Tartar Baking Powder and Baking Soda I am not a chef or student of the culinary arts, nor have I played one on television. I do enjoy problem solving though and would enjoy reading if others have practical experience with making their own. - Robert W. JWR Replies: Thanks for that valuable information. OBTW, SurvivalBlog reader PWO sent us a link with a bit more detail on making your own baking powder, from Wise Geek.com.
  8. How to Test Seed Viability http://flowergardens.suite101.com/article...._seed_viability How to Test Seed Viability How to Tell if Old Seeds Are Viable if Leftover or Old Saved Seed Will Still Germinate Sprout and Grow When Planted © Barbara M. Martin Dec 26, 2006 Read more: http://flowergardens.suite101.com/article....0H0uAUeHG&B Keep old seeds or throw them out? Are they worth planting? What's the shelf life of seeds? Will seeds you already have still sprout or germinate and grow? Test them! If you are a seed saver and saved your own flower or vegetable garden seeds from last year (see Seed Saving Information Directions and Tips) or if you have left over seeds from last year or the year before, are the seeds still any good? Will the seeds germinate and grow? Are the seeds viable? The answer is maybe yes, maybe no. Seeds might seem like inanimate objects, but in reality they are alive. Some seeds are naturally very short lived (sweet peas and delphinium for example) while other seeds may easily retain viability for several years and maybe for as long as a decade. Storage conditions affect the longevity of seeds as well. You can do an easy germination test at home to check on seed viability and seed germination rate. Do A Germination Test Before Planting Old Seeds If you have some leftover or older seeds and wonder whether or not they are viable and will still germinate and grow, you can find out for sure with a germination test. It’s better to test your seeds before planting than to waste time and effort planting seed that is no longer viable – and why purchase more seeds if those you already have are still good? How to Set Up Easy Seed Germination Test Take a small sample of your seeds to test, maybe ten seeds or so from each batch. Slightly dampen a paper towel and place the sample seeds on it. Fold the barely damp paper towel it in half over the seeds. Enclose in plastic wrap or place inside a sealed plastic bag so it will stay damp. Label the package with seed name and date. Set the package in a relatively warm place (70 to 75 degrees) such as the top of your refrigerator or on a high shelf. Do not put it in direct sun. (Direct sun could cause it to overheat.) How Long to Wait: Check Seeds Often The seeds should absorb water and swell. Check daily for germination and to make sure the paper towel is still just barely moist. Mist it lightly if it begins to dry out. Depending on which specific plant you are testing, the seeds may begin to sprout in a day or two or may take several weeks to begin. Usually the majority will sprout within a few days of each other. When germination stops and no more seeds have sprouted for several days, you will know what approximate germination rate to expect from that batch of seeds. Read more: http://flowergardens.suite101.com/article....0H0uFocOw&B
  9. Part 7 Fish Breaded fish 4-6 months Canned fish 1 year 1-2 days* Cooked fish or seafood 3-4 days 3 months Lean fish (e.g. cod, flounder, haddock) 1-2 days 6 months Fatty fish (e.g. bluefish, salmon, mackeral) 1-2 days 2-3 months Dry pickled fish 3-4 weeks Smoked fish 2 weeks 4-5 weeks Seafood-clams, crab, lobster in shell 2 days 3 months Seafood-oysters and scallops 1-2 days 3-4 months Seafood-shrimp 1-2 days 1 year Seafood-shucked clams 1-2 days 3-6 months Tuna salad, store prepared or homemade 3-5 days Poultry and Eggs Chicken nuggets or patties 1-2 days Chicken livers 1-2 days 3 months Chicken and poultry TV dinners 6 months Canned poultry^ 1 year 1 day* Cooked poultry 2-3 days 4-6 months Fresh poultry 1 day 1 year Frozen poultry parts 6-9 months Canned poultry 1 day 3 months Poultry pies, stews, and gravies 1-2 days 6 months Poultry salads, store prepared or homemade 3-5 days Poultry stuffing, cooked 3-4 days 1 month Eggs, in shell 3-5 weeks Eggs, hard-boiled 1 week Eggs, pasteurized 10 days 3 days* 1 year Egg substitute 10 days 3 days* 1 year Egg yolks (covered in water) 2-4 days 1 year Egg whites (For each cup of egg yolk add 1 Tbs. of sugar or salt) 2-4 days 1 year Wild Game Frog legs 1 day 6-9 months Game birds 2 days 9 months Small game (rabbit, squirrel, etc.) 2 days 9-12 months Venison ground meat 1-2 days 2-3 months Venison steaks and roasts 3-5 days 9-12 months * Opened + Cooked ^ Refrigerate after opening # After manufacture date References American Meat Institute Foundation. 1994. Yellow pages: answers to predictable questions consumers ask about meat and poultry. American Meat Institute Foundation, Washington, D.C. Food Marketing Institute. 1999. The food keeper. Food Marketing Institute, Washington, D.C. Freeland-Graves, J.H. and G.C. Peckham. 1996. Foundations of food preparation, 6th ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Hillers, V.N. 1993. Storing foods at home. Washington State University Cooperative Extension, Pullman, WA. Publ. EB 1205. National Restaurant Association. 2001. Be cool-chill out! Refrigerate promptly. National Restaurant Association Education Foundation¼s International Food Safety Council, Washington, D.C. USDA. 1997. Basics for handling food safely. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Washington, D.C. Reviewed by Renee Boyer, Extension Specialist, Food Science and Technology
  10. Part 6 Meats, Poultry, Eggs and Fish Meats Fresh beef and bison steaks 3-5 days 6-9 months Fresh beef and bison roasts 3-5 days 9-12 months Fresh pork chops 2-3 days 4-6 months Fresh lamb chops 3-5 days 6-8 months Fresh veal 1-2 days 4-6 months Fresh ground meat (e.g. beef, bison, veal, lamb) 1 day 3-4 months Cooked meat 2-3 days 2-3 months Canned meat 1 year 3-4 days* 3-4 months Ham, whole 1 week 1-2 months Ham, canned 1 year 1 week* 3-4 months Ham, canned "keep refrigerated" 6-9 months 1 week* 3-4 months Shelf-stable unopened canned meat (e.g. chili, deviled ham, corn beef) 1 year 1week* Ham, cook before eating 1 week Ham, fully cooked 2 weeks 1 week* Ham, dry-cured 1 year 1 month Ham salad, store prepared or homemade 3-5 days Bacon 2 weeks 1 week* 1 month Corned beef, uncooked 5-7 days 1-2 months Restructured (flaked) meat products 9-12 months Sausage, fresh 1-2 days 1-2 months Smoked breakfast sausage links, patties 1 week 2 months Sausage, smoked (e.g. Mettwurst) 1 week 1-2 months Sausage, semi-dry (e.g. Summer sausage) 2-3 weeks* 6 months Sausage, dry smoked (e.g. Pepperoni, jerky, dry Salami) 1 year 1 month* 6 months Frankfurters, bologna 2 weeks 3-5 days* 1-2 months Luncheon meat 2 weeks 3-5 days* 1 month Meat gravies 1-2 days 2-3 months TV beef and pork dinners 18 months# Meat based casseroles 3-4 days 4 months Variety meats (giblets, tongue, liver, heart, etc.) 1-2 days 3-4 months Vinegar pickled meats (e.g. pickled pigs feet) 1 year^ 2 weeks*
  11. Part 5 Fruits Apples Until ripe 1 month Apricots Until ripe 5 days Avocados Until ripe 5 days Bananas Until ripe 5 days (fully ripe) Berries Until ripe 3 days 1 year Canned fruit 1 year 2-4 days* Canned fruit juices 1 year 3-4 days* Cherries Until ripe 3 days Citrus fruit Until ripe 2 weeks Dried fruit 6 months 2-4 days+ Frozen fruit 1 year Fruit juice concentrate 6 days 1 year Fruit pies, baked 2-3 days 8 months Grapes Until ripe 5 days Melons Until ripe 5 days Nectarines Until ripe 5 days Peaches Until ripe 5 days 1 year Pears Until ripe 5 days 1 year Pineapple Until ripe 5-7 days 1 year Plums Until ripe 5 days Dairy Products Butter 1-2 months 9 months Buttermilk 2 weeks Cottage cheese 1 week 3 months Cream cheese 2 weeks Cream-light, heavy, half- and-half 3-4 days 1-4 months Eggnog commercial 3-5 days 6 months Margarine 4-5 months 12 months Condensed, evaporated and dry milk 12-23 months^ 8-20 days* Milk 8-20 days Ice cream and sherbet 2 months Hard natural cheese (e.g. cheddar, swiss) 3-6 months 4 weeks* 6 months Hard natural cheese, sliced 2 weeks Processed cheese 1 month 6 months Soft cheese (e.g. brie) 1 week 6 months Pudding 1-2 days* Snack dips 1 week* Sour cream 2 weeks Non-dairy whipped cream, canned 3 months Real whipped cream, canned 3-4 weeks Yogurt 2 weeks 1-2 months
  12. Part 4 Vegetables Asparagus 2-3 days 8 months Beets 2 weeks Broccoli 3-5 days Brussels sprouts 3-5 days Cabbage 1 week Carrots 2 weeks Cauliflower 1 week Celery 1 week Corn (husks) 1-2 days 8 months Cucumbers 1 week Eggplant 1 week Green beans 1-2 days 8 months Green peas 3-5 days 8 months Lettuce 1 week Lima beans 3-5 days 8 months Mushrooms 2 days Onions 1 week 3-5 days Onion rings (precooked, frozen) 1 year# Peppers 1 week Pickles, canned 1 year 1 month* Frozen potatoes 8 month Sweet potatoes 2-3 weeks White potatoes 2-3 months Potato chips 1 month Radishes 2 weeks Rhubarb 3-5 days Rutabagas 1 week Snap beans 1 week Spinach 5-7 days 8 months Squash, Summer 3-5 days Squash, Winter 1 week Tomatoes 1 week Turnips 2 weeks Commercial baby food, jars 1-2 years^ 2-3 days Canned vegetables 1 year^ 1-4 days* Canned vegetables, pickled 1 year^ 1-2 months* Dried vegetables 6 months Frozen vegetables 8 months Vegetable soup 3-4 days 3 months
  13. Part 3 Cornstarch 18 months 2 years Gelatin 18 months Honey, jams, jellies, and syrup 1 year 6-8 months* Marshmallows 2-3 months Marshmallow cream 3-4 months Mayonnaise 2-3 months 12 months 2 months* Molasses 2 years Nuts, shelled 4 months 6 months Nuts, unshelled 6 months Nuts, salted 6-8 months Nuts, unsalted 9-12 months Oil, salad 3 months^ 2 months* Parmesan grated cheese 10 months 2 months* Pasteurized process cheese spread 3 months 3-4 weeks* 4 months Peanut butter 6 months 2-3 months* Popcorn 1-2 years 2 years 2-3 years Pectin 1 year Salad dressings, bottled 1 year^ 3 months* Soft drinks 3 months Artificial sweetener 2 years Sugar, brown 4 months Sugar, confectioners 18 months Sugar, granulated 2 years Tea bags 18 months Tea, instant 2 years Vegetable oils 6 months 1-3 months* Vegetable shortening 3 months 6-9 months Vinegar 2 years 1 year* Water, bottled 1-2 years Whipped topping (dry) 1 year Yeast, dry Pkg. exp. date
  14. Part 2 Recommended Food Storage Chart The following charts provide general recommended storage times from date of purchase for various food products stored under optimum conditions. Storage generally is not recommended under conditions where no time is listed in the chart. For maximum shelf-life, consumers should always purchase fresh food and never temperature abuse food. Food Pantry (Room Temperature) Refrigerator (33°F to 40°F) Freezer (0°F) Bread and Cereal Products Baked quick breads 4-5 days 1-2 weeks 2-3 months Bread 5-7 days 1-2 weeks 3 months Bread crumbs and croutons 6 months Bread rolls, unbaked 2-3 weeks 1 month Cereals, ready-to-eat 1 year 2-3 months* Cereals, ready-to-cook 6 months Corn meal 1 year 18 months 2 years Doughnuts 4-5 days 3 months Flour, cake, all-purpose 1 year 1-2 years Flour, whole wheat 6-8 months 1-2 years Pasta 2 years Pies and pastries 3 days 4-6 months Pies and pastries, baked 1-2 months Pies and pastries, cream filled 2-3 days 3 months Pizza 3-4 days 1-2 months Rice, brown 6 months Rice, white 1 year 6-7 days+ 6 months+ Tacos, enchiladas, and burritos (frozen) 2 weeks 1 year Waffles 4-5 days 1 month Packaged Foods and Mixes Biscuit, brownie, and muffin mixes 9 months Cakes, prepared 2-4 days 2-3 months Cake mixes 6-9 months Casserole mix 9-12 months Chili powder 6 months Cookies, packaged 2 months 8-12 months Crackers, pretzels 3 months Frosting, canned 3 months Frosting, mix 8 months Fruit cake 2-3 months 1 year Hot roll mix 18 months Instant breakfast products 6 months Pancake and piecrust mix 6 months Pancake waffle batter 1-2 days 3 months Toaster pastries 3 months Sauce and gravy mixes 6 months Soup mixes 1 year Spices, Herbs, Condiments, Extracts Catsup, chili, and cocktail sauce 1 year 1 month* 6 months Herbs 6 months 1-2 years Herb/spice blends 2 years 1 year * 1-2 years Mustard 2 years 6-8 months* 8-12 months Spices, ground 6 months 1-2 years Spices, whole 1-2 years 2-3 years Vanilla extract 2 years 1 year* Other extracts 1 year Other Food Staples Bacon bits 4 months Baking powder 18 months Baking soda 2 years Bouillon products 1 year Carbonated soft drinks (12 oz. cans) 6-9 months Carbonated soft drinks, diet (12 oz. cans) 3-4 months Chocolate, premelted 1 year Chocolate syrup 2 years 6 months* Chocolate, semisweet 2 years Chocolate, unsweetened 18 months Cocoa mixes 8 months Coconut, shredded 1 year 6 months* 8 months 1 year Coffee cans 2 years 2 weeks* 2 months 6 months Coffee, instant 6 months 2 weeks* Coffee, vacuum-packed 1 year ^ Coffee lighteners (dry) 9 months 6 months* 1 year
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